Sách Từ vựng IELTS – Unit 11: Design and innovation – Học Hay

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Từ vựng IELTS - Unit 11: Design and Innovation


1.1   Which adjectives best describe your home?

A   old traditional modern

B    concrete brick steel timber

C  single-storey    two-storey  muIti-storey/ high rise


1.2   Complete the sentences using the words in brackets in the correct order.

1     It's a..............house. (brick, traditional)

2    I live in a.............. apartment. (high-rise, lovely)

3   I'd rather live in a..............cottage. (small, country)


Đáp án:

1. a traditional brick house

2. a lovely high-rise apartment

3. small country cottage


1.3   Now make a similar sentence about your own home.


I live in..............but I'd rather live in...............


2.1   Listen to three people describing their homes and complete the table below.


Type of building

Material(s) used

Favourite feature

Adjectives used to describe it

















Đáp án:


Type of building

Material(s) used

Favourite feature

Adjectives used to describe it


(A) single-storey (cottage)

timber and stone


traditional, ornate, cosy


(A) high-rise (flat)

glass, concrete and steel


ultra-modern, state-of-the art, functional, cramped


(A) two-storey (house)



conventional, typical, spacious, light, airy


2.2   Listen again and answer the questions. Include the words from the recording that give you your answers.

 Speaker A     

1     Where did the stone come from?

2   What makes the ceilings ornate?

3   Is the house large or small?

Speaker B

1    Is the computer system new or old?

2    What makes the apartment functional?

3   Are the bedrooms large or small?

4   Are the buildings around it tall?

Speaker C

1    Is this house different from those around it?

2   Which room does the speaker say is bright?

3   What shape is the bottom of the staircase?


Đáp án:


1.   the local quarry

2.   (they are decorated with) pretty details

3.   small (cosy)


1.    new (state-of-the-art)

2.    it has  a space to suit every purpose

3.  small  (cramped)

4.  no (his  building towers over everything else)


1.    no, it is conventional, typical

2.   the living room (it is light and airy)

3.  curved


3.1  Scan the article and underline these words.

invented           trigger          hoisted     hauling           device..............internal          platforms..............storage frame..............construction          steel..............lift shaft..............tension skyscrapers..............land marks


The elevator

Next time you are in a lift, look for the name of the people who made it. Chances are it will be the Otis Elevator Company. It was Elisha Otis who invented the gadget that made the modern passenger lift possible. The concept of elevation was already well established.  Louis XV of France disliked stairs so much that he was regularly hoisted skywards in a 'flying chair' by several strong men hauling on ropes. In Otis's time, warehouses commonly used moving platforms to transport goods between floors. However, elevating anything further than one floor or weighing more than 70 kilograms would have been considered far too dangerous.

Otis worked for a bed manufacturer who was keen to expand his business but needed to find a way to move his beds to an upper floor for storage. The inventive Otis soon had a solution to the safety problem: a tough steel spring system that meshed with ratchets on either side of the lift shaft so that if the rope gave way the sudden loss of tension would trigger the device, stopping the lift from falling.

At the 1854 World Trade fair in New York, Otis unveiled his invention and orders began to pour in, including one from the United States Assay Office which at that time was constructing one of the first buildings with an internal steel frame to support the exterior walls. This was the same construction method that skyscrapers would use. If not for lifts, the towering landmarks which feature so prominently in today's architecture would have been impossible and the character of our cities would be entirely different.


3.2   Decide if the following statements are true or false. Write the words you have underlined that helped you.

1     Elisha Otis came up with the idea that made elevators safe for people. …………….

2    Louis XV was lifted into the air by men pulling ropes. ..............  .

3   Warehouses in Otis's time used boxes to move their goods to different levels. ……………………..

4   Otis's boss wanted to move beds to a higher level for delivery. ..............  .

5   Otis made his springs out of plastic. ...............

6    The ratchets were located on the inside of the lift. ……………..

7    If a rope became slack this activated the contraption. ………………

8    The US Assay Office building had its support structure on the outside. …………..

9    The US Assay Office used a similar building technique to today’s tall building. ………………

10    The writer believes that skyscrapers can help you find your way around a city. …………


Đáp án:

1.  True (invented = came up with)

2.   True  (hoisted= lifted, hauling= pulling)

3.    False (they used platforms)

4.   False  (for storage)

5.    False  (they were made of steel)

6.   False (they were in the lift shaft)

7.   True (loss of tension= slack, trigger= activate, device= contraption)

8.   False (frame= support structure, it was internal)

9.  True (construction method= building technique, skyscrapers= very tall  buildings)

10.  True (landmarks= tall or distinctive features or buildings that help  to locate where you are)


3.3. Match the verbs (1-8) in column A with the definitions (A-H) in column B.



1     condemn    

2    demolish      

3    develop

4   devise

5    maintain

6   occupy           

7    reconstruct

8   renovate

A   build something on a piece of land

B   build again

C    repair and make new again knock down

D    knock down

E    live in or use a space

F      judge a building not to be safe

G     keep in good condition invent

H     invent


Đáp án:

1. F

2. D

3. A

4. H

5. G

6. E

7. B

8. C


3.4   Choose the correct words.

1    We can't move into the house until they have developed / renovated it.

2    No one has been allowed to occupy the building since it was condemned /reconstructed.

3   The architect devised / demolished a clever way of keeping the house cool in summer.

4   The tenants were offered a reduced rent if they agreed to maintain / occupy the property.


Đáp án:

1. renovated

2. condemned

3. devised

4. maintain



Complete the table.



Adjective or past participle

builder/ building

























Đáp án:



Adjective or past participle

builder/ building



construction/ construction worker



design/ designer



engineering/ engineer






invention/ inventor










3.6  Complete the text with words from 3.5.

A group of (1) i..............architecture students has won this year's Timber Bridge Competition. The students' (2) d............. beat 17 others. The team used an (3) i..............approach to their bridge which was (4) b..............entirely out of timber. They used traditional (5) c……….. methods to avoid using nails or screws. The students demonstrated a good knowledge of fundamental (6 ) e..............principles. They (7) c..............  a working model of the bridge, which (8) o......... an entire car park. This allowed them to test the bridge and ensure that the (9) s..............was sound.


Đáp án:

1.  inventive

2.   design

3.   innovative

4.   built

5.   construction

6.  engineering

7.   constructed

8.  occupied

9.  structure



Tick the correct sound for each of the letters underlined. Listen and check your answers, then practise saying the words correctly.

1    design      s    z    

2    please      s     z    

3    device      s     z

4    residence      s     z

6    housing      s     z

7     fasten        s     z


Đáp án:

1. z

2. z

3. s

4. z

5. z

6. z

7. s

8. s

9. s

10. z


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