Sách Từ vựng IELTS – Unit 13: The modern world – Học Hay


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Từ vựng IELTS - Unit 13: The Modern World

Globalisation

1.1  Answer these questions.

1     How many of the following brand names do you know?

Nike   Sony   Coca Cola   Levi's   Versace   Gucci   Adidas

2    Can you name the countries these companies are from?

3   Can you name a product or brand from your country that is well known in other countries?

 

Đáp án:

2.

Nike = US    Sony = Japan    Coca-Cola  = US     Levi's = US

Versace = Italy   Gucci = Italy    Adidas = UK

 

1.2   Listen to two people, Amy and Bill, discussing globalisation. Who expresses the following opinions? Write A for Amy and B for Bill.

1   Globalisation could harm the regional way of life.   

2   Globalisation can help people who live within a small area.

3   Worldwide, more people eat traditional food than fast food.   

4   People can enjoy products from many different cultures today.   

5   large overseas companies have control over the non-alcoholic drink market.

6   If not for globalisation, companies from different countries would not join together to do business.

7    People who travel prefer to see unusual and exciting things instead of symbols used by big companies.

8   Experiencing something from another country does not take away your feeling of belonging to your country .

9   A range of different cultures can be reflected in food bought overseas.

10   No single company has complete control over the fashion industry  

 

Đáp án:

1.  B (At this rate our culture will disappear a/together and we'll all end up eating the same bland food!)

2. A (a lot of people are worried about globalisation and the impact it could have on the local people. But actually I'm beginning to think it works the other way around)

3. A (and globally, pizzas are actually more popular than burgers)

4. A (globalisation could mean that we end up living a more interesting and multicultural life)

5.  B (the soft drinks market is totally dominated by just one or two big companies.)

6. A (Without globalisation international companies just wouldn't merge like that)

7.  B (They want to see something exotic, not the same icons they see all around them at home!)

8. A (I doubt local people feel they are losing their national identity just because a fast food outlet has opened up.)

9. A (And anyway, the nice thing about it is that in many places, these chains have to change the food they sell to suit the local culture. So there is a lot of give and take going on and you still get cultural diversity to some extent.)

10. B  (I guess no one big multinational has a monopoly over the fashion market either, does it?)

 

1.3   Now listen again and write the words or phrases from the conversation that mean the same as the words in bold in 1.2.

 

Đáp án: 

1. culture

2.  local

3.  globally

4.  multicultural

5.  multinationals, is dominated by

6. merge

7.  exotic ... icons

8. national identity

9. cultural diversity

10. have a monopoly over

 

1.4  WORD BUILDING

Complete the table.

 

Noun

Adjective

culture

 

 

ethnic

globalisation

 

 

modern

 

multicultural

nation

 

 

urban

 

Đáp án:

Noun

Adjective

culture

cultural

ethnicity

ethnic

globalisation

global

modernisation

modern

multiculturalism

multicultural

nation

national

urbanisation

urban

2.1  Read the article and then look at the statements below. Write Yes if the statement agrees with the opinions in the text and No if it contradicts them. Underline the part of the text that gave you your answer.

The past 40 years have seen astounding developments: globalisation, the end of the Cold War, the Internet. The next 40 years may bring even more profound changes. In order to predict  the future we must first examine the past. Historians see history as being driven by a combination of cumulative long-term trends and short to mid-term cycles, each of which contains the seeds of a subsequent but familiar situation. There have been many projections about the future which, with the benefit of hindsight, seem rather ridiculous. Who can forget the predictions about the Y2K bug when commentators believed that societies would collapse and satellites would fall from the sky? Unfortunately, as a result, many people today are more sceptical about current predictions concerning global warming.

One of the few areas in which long-term trends can be clearly seen is demographic statistics. These indicate that the population of the world will increase to about eight billion in 2026 and continue to rise to nine billion by 2050, after which it will flatten out. Some societies have birth rates that are already locking their populations into absolute decline. Not only will the populations of each of these societies dwindle, but an increasing proportion will be moving into old age, when they are less productive and use more health resources. However, the weakness of all such predictions is that humans meddle with their own history. Predictions about the future affect how humans act or plan today and ultimately how events unfold. The challenge is to pick the trends that are likely to be prolonged, but to also factor in human influence.

1    A cycle is usually repeated at some time in the future.

2    We can look back and understand past predictions. 

3    Past predictions have caused people to firmly believe in current predictions.             

4   Population figures can be predicted quite accurately.              

5    Some countries are predicted to experience a total decline in population.

6    The percentage of elderly people will dwindle in some countries

7    Elderly people work less 

8    To make accurate predictions we need to take into account the effect people have on their environment.

 

Đáp án:

1. Yes

2. Yes (There have been many projections about the future which, with the benefit of hindsight, seem rather ridiculous.)

3. No (... many people today are more sceptical about recent predictions ... )

4. Yes (One of the few areas in which long-term trends can be clearly seen is in demographic statistics.)

5. Yes (Some societies have birth rates that are already locking their populations into absolute decline.)

6. No (an increasing proportion will be moving into old age)

7. Yes (into old age. when they are less productive.)

8. Yes (pick the trends that are likely to be prolonged, but to also factor in human influence.)

 

2.2   Look at the words in bold in the eight statements and find the words or phrases in the text that are similar in meaning, or the opposite. The first one has been done for you.

1     …………………

2    …………………

3    …………………

4    …………………

5   (x2)  ………………… ........... ........... ...........        .

6   (x2)  ……………… .

7    …………………

8   (x2) …………………...

 

Đáp án:

1. in the future = subsequent

2. look back and understand = with the benefit of hindsight

3. firmly believe in (opp) are sceptical about

4. population = demographics; figures = statistics

5. countries = societies; total= absolute

6. percentage = proportion; dwindle (opp) increase

7. work less = are less productive

8. take into account = factor in; the effect = influence

 

2.3  Correct the six mistakes in the text. Use the information in unit 23 to help you.

"

The graph displays the actual population of  Australia in 2002 and the projected figures of 2101.  The per cent of people aged 15-24 is predicted to fall significantly during this period., while there will be an increase of the percentage of people aged 55-64. In 2002, just under 15 percentage of the population was aged between 15 and 24, while in 2101 this is predicted to drop in approximately 10 per cent.

 

Đáp án:

The graph displays shows the actual population of Australia in 2002 and the projected figures of for 2101. The per cent percentage of people aged 15-24 is predicted to fall significantly during this period., while there will be an increase of the percentage of people aged 55-64. In 2002, just under 15 percentage % / per cent of the population was aged between 15 and 24, while in 2101 this is predicted to drop in to approximately 10 per cent.

 

2.4  Complete the text with suitable words from the box.

ageing   challenges population   present          compounded   declining rates   trends       elderly   factors   implications   migrating

 

Statistics show that in many countries the population will decline in the next 50 years. The population of these countries will also age rapidly. What effect will this have on those countries?

If current (1) ...........continue, then in some countries the (2) ...........is expected to dwindle within the next 50 years. This problem is (3) ...........by the fact that not only is the number of inhabitants diminishing, but they are also growing older. This (4) ...........population will bring its own (5) ........... At (6) ...........  there are sufficient younger people to earn money and pay taxes to support the (7) ........... However, within 50 years this will not be the case. There are several possible (8) ........... contributing to this problem. First, birth (9) ........... in these countries are clearly falling. Second, there could be an increase in the number of people (10) ........... away from these areas. The ageing and (11) ...........  population is expected to have important (I 2) ...........for the labour force and the quality of everyday life.

 

Đáp án:

1. trends

2. population

3. compounded

4. ageing

5. challenges

6. present

7. elderly

8. factors

9. rates

10. migrating

11. declining

12. implications

 

3.1   PRONUNCIATION

Which of the patterns (A-F) matches the number of syllables and the stress pattern of the words below? (For example, pattern A matches the word global because it has two syllables with a stress on the first syllable.)

"

 

Đáp án:

A = icon, global, local, culture

B = national, sceptical

C = international, multicultural, multinational

D = domestic, projection

E = globalisation, modernisation

F = isolation, implication, population

 

3.2   Now listen and check your answers, then practise saying the words.

 

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