Sách Từ vựng IELTS – Unit 14: Urbanisation – Học Hay


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Giáo trình Vocabulary for IELTS – Unit 14: Urbanisation | Học Hay

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Từ vựng IELTS - Unit 14: Urbanisation

Problems and solutions

1.1 Consider whether you can ever have too much, too many, too little or too few of the following.

time   traffic   people   money   space   work   rubbish

 

Đáp án:

Too much / too little can be used with uncountable nouns: traffic,  time,  money, space, work,  rubbish.

Too many / too few can be used with countable nouns: people

 

 

1.2   Listen to a conversation between two women and decide which two topics they talk about.

Đáp án:

They talk about work and traffic and to a limited extent, time.

 

1.3  Listen again and write down all the verbs that are used with the words problem and issue.

Đáp án:

face, deal with, cause, tackle, address, raise, resolve, present, identify

 

1.4  Complete the sentences using the verbs you wrote in 1.3. There may be more than one possible answer, so try to use a different verb for each sentence.

1    One of the biggest problems ...........the world today is poverty.

2   Your problems won't go away if you ignore them, you need to ...........them.

3   The problem was ...........by a blocked pipe, which eventually burst.

4   Here is a list of the issues that will be ...........during the meeting.

5   Unfortunately we were unable to ...........the issue, even after two days of talks.

6  The main speaker did not arrive, which ...........an awkward problem for the organisers of the conference.

 

Đáp án:

1.  facing

2. address them/ resolve/ deal with/ tackle (face up to is also possible)

3. caused

4. raised/ addressed/ tackled

5.  resolve

6. presented (posed is also possible)

 

1.5 Match the nouns in column B with the correct verbs in column A. Which two verbs can be used with the words problem and compromise?

A

B

find

overcome

solve

remedy

resolve

reach

a compromise

an issue

a situation

a difficulty

a solution

a problem

 

Đáp án:

find a solution, overcome a difficulty, solve or resolve a problem, remedy a  situation,  resolve an issue or problem, reach or find a compromise

 

1.6  Correct the mistakes in these sentences.

1     I am not sure we will ever solve the issue of unemployment.

2     We need to resolve a solution to this situation as soon as possible.

3    What can we do to solve this difficulty?

4     At last scientists have solution the problems associated with solar-powered cars.

5      Finally, the members of the city council were able to solve a compromise and the building work was allowed to start.

 

Đáp án:

1. solve resolve the issue/solve the problem

2.   resolve find a solution

3.  solve overcome this difficulty

4.  solution solved/resolved the problems, found  a solution to the problems

5.  solve reach/ find a compromise

 

1.7  Cross out the one word in each list that is NOT a synonym for the word in capitals.

1    PROBLEM                      difficulty, dilemma, benefit, challenge, obstacle

2   SOLUTION                     answer, key, remedy, resolution, setback

3   WORSEN                        compound, deteriorate, enhance, exacerbate

4   IMPROVE                       advance, aggravate, flourish, progress, reform

5   CHANGE                         acclimatise, adapt, adjust, amend, linger, modify, transform

 

Đáp án:

1.  benefit (=advantage) 

2. setback (=problem)

3. enhance (= improve) 

4. aggravate ( = make worse)

5. linger (= stay a long time)

 

1.8   Use a hyphen to combine one of the words in box A with one of the words in box B. Then complete the sentences.

A    double   long   short   one    

B     edged   sighted   sided   term

 

1      We need a .......... plan for our transport systems that will take into account future growth.

2    A warning sign was put at the site of the accident as a .......... measure until a new wall was built.

3    This argument appears to be a little ........... . I'd like to hear the other side as well.

4    The management agreed to employ five more members of staff, which in hindsight was a very ........... decision because within a few weeks we were still understaffed.

5   Globalisation is a ..........  sword. It promotes multiculturalism while it erodes the local culture.

 

Đáp án:

double-edged   long-sighted   long-term   short- sighted short-term   one-sided

1.  long-term   

2.  short-term   

3. one-sided

4. short-sighted   

5. double-edged

 

Big city life

2.1    Complete the text with suitable adjectives from the box. More than one adjective may be possible.

adequate   basic    booming   catastrophic   decent        enormous   pressing   staggering

 

Megacities

The world's population is 1 ..........., no more so than in its cities. Today, there are 21 megacities, each containing more than 10 million inhabitants, three-quarters of them in developing nations. 8y 2020, there are expected to be at least 27 megacities. Such a 2 ........... rate of urbanisation brings its own problems, especially in developing nations, where the majority of the megacities will be found.

Employment and educational opportunities are the main attraction of urban centres. But hopes for a better life are often dashed as overpopulation puts an 3 ........... strain on the infrastructure of the cities and their ability to provide 4 .......... necessities such as clean water and a place to live.

Many rural migrants fail to find 5 ........... work, and therefore cannot afford 6 ..........housing. In some megacities up to 50 per cent of the residents live in slums. This problem is 7……….., with the United Nations predicting that half the world's population will be living in cities by next year. If the infrastructure within those cities does not grow at the same rate the result will be 8…………… .

 

Đáp án:

1.  booming/ enormous/ staggering 

2.  staggering

3. enormous  

4. basic

5. adequate/ decent

6. decent/ basic/ adequate 

7.  pressing/ enormous/catastrophic 

8. catastrophic

 

2.2   Find words in the text on page 73 that match these definitions.

1     People that live in a particular place ...........  .

2    Areas of the world that are poorer and have less advanced industries ...........   .

3   The process by which more people leave the countryside to live in the city ...........   .

4   The problem of having too many people ........... .

5  The basic systems and services of a city ………….. .

6   Very poor and crowded areas of a city ...........  .

 

Đáp án:

1. inhabitants

2. developing nations

3. urbanisation

4. overpopulation

5. infrastructure

6. slums

 

2.3  WORD BUILDING Complete the table.

Noun

Verb

Adjective

competition

 

 

 

 

excluded

 

include

 

 

isolate

 

 

 

poor

responsibility

…………responsibility

 

 

 

tolerant

 

Đáp án:

Noun

Verb

Adjective

competition

compete

competitive

exclusion

exclude

excluded

inclusion

include

included

isolation

isolate

isolated

poverty

x

poor

responsibility

take/accept responsibility

responsible

tolerance

tolerate

tolerant

 

3.1    Answer these questions. Write one or two sentences.

1   What are the main problems associated with living in a big city?

2    Can anything be done to solve those problems?

3   Whose responsibility is it to solve these problems?

 

3.2   Now complete these answers to the questions with suitable words from 2.3.

1              Big cities can be overcrowded, so there are a lot of people c..........     for each job and for accommodation. The lack of jobs usually means that there is a lot of p..........     in big cities. And although there are a lot of people around you, many people feel very i...........   in big cities and it's particularly difficult for the elderly.              

2              I think we need to be more t............ of each other. I think it helps if we try to create small communities within the bigger city so we should try to i...........    people rather thane them.        

3              Well, we all have to t.............. r..........    for these problems and we can all do something to         help. But the government is also r..........     to a certain extent as well. They need to make sure that the p..........   are looked after and that they have access to the facilities they need.

 

Đáp án:

1.   competing; poverty; isolated

2.   tolerant; include; exclude

3.   take responsibility; responsible; poor

 

4   PRONUNCIATION If we have -ed at the end of a word, it can be pronounced with a t or d sound. Look at the following words and write tor d depending on their sound. Now listen and check your answers, then practise saying the words.

accepted   crowded   developed   excluded overpriced   overworked   resolved       included   isolated stressed   solved

 

 

Đáp án:

d sound: accepted, crowded, excluded, included, isolated, resolved, solved

t sound: developed, overpriced, overworked, stressed

 

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Từ vựng IELTS theo chủ đề – Unit 14: Urbanisation – Học Hay

 

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