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Từ vựng IELTS - Unit 16: The Energy Crisis
Từ vựng IELTS theo chủ đề - Natural resources
1.1 Answer the questions in this quiz.
1 You decide to fly to an island 5,000 miles away for a holiday. How many trees would you need to plant to offset or make up for the CO, emissions produced by the flight?
2 Which is the most environmentally friendly way to clean your clothes?
A Hand-wash the clothes in hot water.
B Take them to the dry cleaners.
C Machine-wash the clothes in cold water.
3 You are tidying up your house in the evening, going back and forth between the bedroom, kitchen and living room, spending five to ten minutes in each room as you sort out the clutter. What is the best way to make sure your lights aren't needlessly wasting energy?
A Keep the lights on as you go from room to room until the job is done.
B Turn the lights off every time you leave a room and then on again when you return.
4 You decide to cook a baked potato for lunch. Which is the most energy-efficient way of cooking the potato?
A Put it in an electric oven to cook slowly for an hour.
B Quickly zap it in the microwave.
5 You want to really make a significant contribution to the reduction of CO, emissions. Which of these would be of the most benefit over the course of a year?
A Taking the train instead of driving a car.
B Hanging your washing out to dry rather than using the tumble dryer.
C Working from home one day a week.
1.2 Listen to the answers to find out how environmentally aware you are.
1.3 Complete the text with one word in each gap. Then look at the recording script at the back of the book to check your answers.
If we want to (1) ...........energy then we need to change the way we behave. We need to buy appliances that are more energy (2) ...........and limit the amount of time we use them. To reduce the (3) ...........the greenhouse gases have on our (4) ...........we should plant more trees. Trees can (5) ...........carbon dioxide and so they help to (6) ...........the fumes produced by our cars. Turning off lights even for a few minutes can (7) ...........the negative effects of turning them on again later.
1. save (conserve is also possible)
3. effect (impact is also possible)
6. counter/ offset
7. offset/ counter
2.1 Read the text and then answer the questions below.
The future of energy
CO plays a critical role in maintaining the balance in the Earth's atmosphere and the air that we breathe. It is also a waste product of the fossil fuels that almost every person on the planet uses for transport and other energy requirements. Because we create CO; every time we drive a car, cook a meal or tum on a light, and because the gas lasts around a century in the atmosphere, the proportion of CO, in the atmosphere is rapidly increasing.
The best evidence indicates that we need to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 70 per cent by 2050. If you own a four-wheel-drive car and replace it with a hybrid car -- a car that is powered by a combination of electricity and petrol -- or a smaller standard-fuel car, you can achieve a reduction of that magnitude in a day rather than half a century. Unfortunately, our past history of change is considerably slower than this. Samuel Bowser first invented the petrol pump in 1885 but it wasn't until 1988 that all new cars manufactured in the UK were required to use unleaded petrol only.
Not only do fossil fuels pose an environmental hazard but there is also a pressing need to find an alternative energy source that is renewable. Opinions as to how much oil remains vary considerably. Some say that the Earth has produced only 18 per cent of its potential yield of oil; others say supplies may run out as early as 2015. Many countries are exploring alternative energy sources such as solar energy or wind power, which uses large turbines to capture the energy of the wind.
1 How do you write CO2 in full?
2 What do we call fuels such as coal and oil?
3 What are two names for the substance that comes out of the exhaust of a car?
4 What do we call fuels that can be produced at any time?
5 Name two types of alternative energy.
6 What is a turbine most similar to?
A a large engine
B a windmill
C a car
1. carbon dioxide
2. fossil fuels
3. exhaust fumes/emissions
5. solar power, wind power
Từ vựng IELTS theo chủ đề - Alternative fuels
2.2 Complete the text with words from the box.
alternative converting eco-friendly emit engine fuel fumes greenhouse gases plant solar
Fueling our cars
Our love of the fuel-burning car with its poisonous exhaust (1) .......... has had a devastating effect both on our environment and on oil supplies. It is unlikely we will abandon our cars in large enough numbers to resolve this problem, so there is a pressing need to find an (2) .......... fuel. Many car companies are exploring (3) .......... energy sources. Hybrid cars were first developed in 1997 and these are likely to become more commonplace in the future. Hydrogen vehicles that use (4) ...........panels to extract hydrogen from water are also likely to be readily available in the near future. These vehicles (5) .......... only water vapour and so do not contribute to (6) .......... However, critics say that building a network of fuelling stations and (7) .......... existing petrol stations to hydrogen will prove too costly and will limit this vehicle's potential. Nevertheless, countries such as the US, Germany, Japan and Iceland already have ambitious hydrogen plans.
Others believe that biofuels are the future. These fuels are based on (8) .......... oils and so can be grown. The concept of using vegetable oil as a (9) .......... dates back to 1895 when Dr Rudolf Diesel developed the first diesel (10) ...........to run on vegetable oil. He demonstrated his engine at the World Exhibition in Paris in 1900 and described an experiment using peanut oil as fuel in his engine. In 1912, Diesel said, 'The use of vegetable oils for engine fuels may seem insignificant today. But such oils may become in the course of time as important as petroleum and the coal tar products of the present time.'
2. alternative/ eco-friendly
3. eco-friendly/ alternative
6. greenhouse gases
2.3 Decide whether these sentences are true or false. Underline the parts of the text that gave you your answer.
1 Cars that run on electricity and petrol appeared in 1997................
2 Water is produced from the exhausts of hydrogen cars ..........
3 It will be relatively inexpensive to change current petrol stations for hydrogen cars ..........
4 Biofuels are non-renewable ..........
5 In 1912 diesel was seen as an important fuel source ..........
2 True (These vehicles emit only water vapour)
3 False (critics say that ... converting existing petrol stations to hydrogen will prove too costly)
4 False (These fuels are based on plant oils and so can be grown.)
5 False (Diesel said 'the use of vegetable oils for engine fuels may seem insignificant today')
2.4 Which is the odd one out? Try to explain why.
1 curb/limit/ promote/ restrict..........................
2 electricity/ nuclear energy/ solar energy/ wind power ...........
3 economical / effective/ efficient/ emission ........... ........... ...........
4 carbon/ fuel/ gas/ petrol ........... ........... ........... ...........
5 emit/ discharge / release/ retain ........... ........... ........... ...........
6 renewable/ disposable/ rechargeable ........... ........... ...........
7 diminish/ dwindle/ deplete/ drastic ........... ........... ........... ...........
8 consume / extend / exhaust/ expend ........... ........... ...........
9 conserve/ preserve / reserve/ save ........... ........... ...........
1. promote (the other words mean “to reduce”)
2. electricity (the others are all alternative energy sources and are renewable)
3. emission (the others are all adjectives that describe reduced energy use)
4. carbon (the others are all different terms used for petrol)
5. retain (retain means to keep or store, the others all mean the opposite)
6. disposable (this means that you throw it away, the others can be made again)
7. drastic (this is an adjective meaning severe, the others are all verbs meaning decrease)
8. extend (this means to cause something to lost longer, the others are mean to use or use up)
9. reserve (this means to book a table or a seat, or to keep something for a particular time but cannot be used with energy. The others all mean the same as save and can be used with the word energy)
2.5 Answer these questions using as many new words and phrases from this unit as you can. If possible, record yourself and then listen to your answers.
1 Do you think that you waste too much energy in the home?
2 What can the government do to encourage people to save energy?
3 Why do you think people prefer to drive a car instead of using public transport?
4 Do you feel optimistic about the future in terms of energy?
5 What changes do you think will happen in the next 20 years?
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