Sách Từ vựng IELTS – Unit 18: The law – Học Hay


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Sách Từ vựng IELTS – Unit 18: The law – Học Hay

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Từ vựng IELTS - Unit 18: The Law

Crime

1.1   Put the following into order from least to most serious. Which do you think are considered to be crimes?

arson    burglary    fraud    vandalism kidnapping    murder    pickpocketing smuggling    swearing    dumping toxic waste

 

Đáp án:

Crimes: arson, burglary, fraud, kidnapping, murder, smuggling.

Petty crimes:  pickpocketing, vandalism.

Swearing is offensive but is not a crime.

Dumping toxic waste is not considered a crime in all areas.

 

1.2  Now read the text and decide whether statements 1-7 are true or false. Write the words from the text which mean the same as or the opposite of the words in italics.

Crime

Crime is defined by society and relative to the society defining it. Traditionally, crime is considered an offence, a violation of public rules or laws. Crime is defined within each society by specific criminal laws on a national, state and local level. Actions that are offensive to an individual or group of people, but do not violate laws are not crimes. Punishment or other sanctions result from the violation of these laws, and the social system for monitoring and enforcing public rules or laws is put into action. The social system generally consists of an administrative authority that formally deals with crime and a force of representative officers to enforce the laws and act on behalf of society. Being guilty of a criminal act usually involves some form of conscious evil intent or recklessness. In unintentional cases, such as crimes committed by children or the insane, the criminal is not usually punished in the same manner as is intentional crime.

Theories of crime and criminal activity are numerous and varied, but the reasons behind crime remain elusive. Theories suggest many possible causes. One theory suggests that property crime depends on criminal motive and opportunities to perpetrate crime. It also contends that crime is influenced by the degree to which others guard over neighbourhoods and other people. This particular theory relates an increase in crime rate to an increase in crime opportunity and a decrease in protection. Research also shows that income inequality correlates to property crime.

1       Offence is another word for crime.

2      The word offensive  is related  to crime.

3       It is the duty of the police to violate the law.

4      Generally, people who are guilty of a crime  are aware of what they are doing.

5       The explanations for crime are difficult to find

6     Crime can increase if people protect their property less

7       Crime on property is linked to the different amounts of money people earn.

 

Đáp án:

1. True (crime is considered an offence)

2.   False (actions that ore offensive to on individual or group of people, but do not violate laws are not crimes)

3.   False (they must enforce the law, violate the law means the same as break the law)

4.  True (being guilty of a criminal act usually involves some form of conscious evil intent - conscious = aware)

5.  True (the reasons behind crime remain elusive - elusive = difficult to find)

6.  True (crime is influenced by the degree to which others guard over neighborhoods and other people – protect = guard)

7.  True (research  also shows that income inequality correlates to property crime - is linked= correlates)

 

1.3  WORD BUILDING Complete the table.

Noun

Verb

Adjective

crime

c ........... a crime

 

 

deter

 

 

enforce

 

 

offend

 

prevention

 

 

prison

 

 

punishment

 

 

 

 

Đáp án:

Noun

Verb

Adjective

crime

commit a crime

criminal

deterrent

deter

deterrent

enforcement

enforce

enforceable

offence

offend

offensive

prevention

prevent

preventable

prison, imprisonment, prisoner

imprison

imprisoned

punishment

punish

punishable

 

1.4   Complete the sentences with a suitable word from the table in 1.3.

1    All ...........acts should be punished.

2   Every society needs a strong system of law ........... .

3    People who ...........crimes are often victims themselves.

4    I think dumping toxic waste should be made a .......... offence. There is little to ............ people from doing this at the moment.

5    I think we could have ........... this crime by fitting an extra lock on the door.

 

Đáp án:

1. criminal

2. enforcement

3. commit

4. criminal/punishable, deter

5. prevented

Punishment

2.1 Match the verbs in column A with the nouns in column B.

A

B

accept

commit

convict

impose

pass

a crime

a law

a fine

the consequences

a criminal

 

 

Đáp án:

accept the consequence, commit a crime, convict a criminal, impose a fine, pass a law

 

2.2 Match the people with the things they do.

List of people

1    The accused.

2   The judge

3   The jury

4   The prosecutor

5   The lawyer

6   The victim    .

 

List of things they do

A      tries to prove the accused is guilty.

B       gives evidence against the accused.

C      the person who is on trial.

D      decides whether the accused is innocent or guilty.

E       tries to prove the accused is innocent.

F      decides how a criminal should be punished.

 

Đáp án:

1. C

2. F

3. D

4. A

5. E

6. B

 

2.3   COLLOCATION

What words can you use with crime and law? Write in the boxes below.

Crime

Crime

Low

Adjectives

 

 

Verbs

 

 

 

 

Đáp án:

Crime

Crime

Low

Adjectives

serious, non-violent, drug-related, petty, victimless, random

strict, harsh, tough, existing

Verbs

commit,  combat, solve,  be involved in a, be tough on

obey, break, enforce,  pass, abolish, abide, introduce

NB break (the law) and commit ( a  crime) are not in the recording.

 

2.4   Now listen and fill in any blanks you have in the table.

 

2.5   Complete the sentences with suitable words from the recording. You may need to change the grammatical form of the word. Listen and check your answers.

 

1    I consider myself to be a law-a...........citizen. I've never broken the law in my life.

2   The laws in this country are rather s...........- even chewing gum is banned.

3    Arson is a crime a...........  property, but sometimes people can get hurt as well.

4   I was given a parking f...........again yesterday. It's costing me a fortune.

5   It is the responsibility of the police and the government to c ........... crime.

6   More money should be spent on crime p...........  than on building prisons.

7   Sometimes the police feel that they are a ...........the law and should not be punished for traffic offences.

8    It used to be against the law to go fishing on Sundays, but thankfully that law was a………. years ago.

 

Đáp án:

1. abiding

2. strict/severe

3. against

4. fine

5. combat

6. prevention

7. above

8. aboilished

 

3.1   Correct the mistakes in the text.

'Our prison system is clearly not working. We need to find another form of punishment.'

If people 1 convict a crime then they should be punished and made to accept the consequences of their 2 acts. At the moment the only form of 3 punish we have is to either 4 find people for 5 small crimes or 6 emprison them for more serious criminal 7 offend.

Some people feel that this system is not working. Perhaps this is because 8 the bad people mix with other 9 crimes when they are in jail. As a result, prisons may provide a way for young people who have been involved for 10 minor offences to graduate to 11 bigger ones.

Rather than trying to 12 prevent this problem by building even more prisons, I believe the best approach is to try to 13 avoid crime from happening in the first place. We can do this by making sure that our property is 14 protection and also by improving the conditions for the poorer people in our society. We can also achieve this by 15 making new laws that will act as a 16 deter.

 

Đáp án:

1. commit

2.   actions

3.   punishment

4.  fine   

5.  petty

6.  imprison   

7.  offences   

8.  criminals/ prisoners

9.  criminals

10.  in   

11.   more serious

12.  solve

13.  prevent

14.   protected

15.  passing

16.  deterrent

 

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Từ vựng IELTS theo chủ đề – Unit 18: The law – Học Hay

 

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