Sách Từ vựng IELTS – Unit 33: Words describing cause and effect – Học Hay


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Từ vựng IELTS - Unit 33: Words describing cause and effect

Bài tập từ vựng IELTS Unit 33: Words describing cause and effect - Học Hay

1. Sentences 1-9 contain words or expressions in bold which indicate a cause and effect relationship. For each sentence, underline the cause and put brackets around the effect.

1. One of the consequences of the growth of social networking is a reduction of government control of information.

2. Critics fear that tax rises will have a number of undesirable repercussions including a slowdown in investment.

3. Better maternal health isjust one of the outcomes of the government's reform of services.

4. The collapse of the bank set off a chain reaction of financial crises throughout the country.

5. The company's insolvency stems from a series of poor decisions made five years ago.

6. His statements about corruption in the police provoked an immediate response.

 

2. For each sentence 1—4 use the context to write the meaning of the words in bold. Underline the words that help explain the words in bold and indicate whether they are:

1. We saw that whereas the original photo showed the complete scene, the published version had been cropped.

A. a superordinate term 

B. an example 

C. a synonym or definition

D. an antonym

2. Air quality can be improved through greater use of catalytic converters. devices which reduce pollution generated by cars.

A. a superordinate term 

B. an example 

C. a synonym or definition

D. an antonym

3. Rocket launchers, grenades and other weapons were discovered under the floorboards.

A. a superordinate term 

B. an example 

C. a synonym or definition

D. an antonym

4. Some researchers have employed a flawed methodology, for example failing to adequately consider significant variables.

A. a superordinate term 

B. an example 

C. a synonym or definition

D. an antonym

 

3. Words and expressions 1—9 all appear in bold in the reading passage. Study the context in which they appear and circle the meaning a or b in the table which best defines the word as it is used in the passage.

Birth Order and Personality

The belief that birth order has a lasting impact on personality is widespread and frequently referred to in popular psychology literature. Alfred Adler [1870 - 1937], an Austrian psychotherapist, was one of the first to argue that birth order contributes to the formation of character. He maintained that firstborn children could often be profoundly affected by the loss of status brought about by the birth of siblings. Eldest children, according to Adler, were prone to be both anxious and conscientious, that is, inclined to work hard, perhaps in order to regain a position of primacy within the family.

Since Adler, there have been numerous attempts to verify the influence of birth order on a range of personality traits, in particular: rebelliousness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and anxiety. Some studies have found that last born children tend to be more extrovert and agreeable, that is, they not only seek out the company of others but also tend to get along well with other people. Middle children, on the other hand, are least likely to be compliant. They tend to rebel, perhaps in an attempt to define themselves as 'special' in relation to their more conscientious elder siblings and agreeable younger siblings.

1. impact 

A. cause 

B. effect

2. contributes to 

A. is one of the causes 

B. is one of the effects

3. maintained 

A. denied 

B. believed

4. were prone to 

A. had a tendency to 

B. were unlikely to

5. primacy 

A. greatest importance 

B. least importance

6. influence 

A. effect 

B. cause

7. traits 

A. problems 

B. characteristics

8. agreeable 

A. agree with the opinions of others 

B. relate well to other people

9. be compliant 

A. obey others 

B. disobey others

 

Đáp án:

1.

1 the growth of social networking [a reduction of government control of information]

2. tax rises [a slowdown in investment]

3. [Better maternal health] the government's reform of services

4. The collapse of the bank [financial crises throughout the country]

5. [The company’s insolvency] a series of poor decisions made five years ago

6. His statements about corruption in the police [an immediate response]

 

2.

1 whereas, complete 

d. an antonym (cropped = reduced/cut)

2 devices which reduce pollution generated by cars

c. a definition (a catalytic converter = a device which reduces pollution generated by cars]

3 weapons

a. a superordinate term (a grenade = a type of weapon)

4 for example failing to adequately consider...

b. an example (flawed = faulty)

 

3.

1 b

2 a

3 b

4 a

5 a

6 a

7 b

8 b

9 a

Exam practise Unit 33: Words describing cause and effect

Exam practice: Reading — answering multiple-choice questions

QUESTIONS 1—5

Look at the passage below. Choose the appropriate letters A—D to finish sentences 1—5.

Four-legged Pharmaceutical

Recent research suggests that pet ownership has some surprising benefits for children. The study of 256 children in three UK schools found that pets were linked to a 20% reduction in the number of days children were off sick from school. According to Dr. June McNicholas, former lecturer and world expert on human-animal interaction, owning a pet can have a positive influence on immune system functioning. She found that children who grew up in households with pets had a lower risk of developing allergies and asthma in later life.

Pets also make children happier. They are associated with improved psychological well-being, which in turn impacts positively on physical health. Physically disabled children with pets, guide dogs for example, were found to experience even greater health benefits. Pets offer psychological support and a 'risk-free' relationship, a relationship not determined by achievements or status.

The study did not find significant differences between owning a cat and owning a dog, though it is possible that exposure to cats resulted in slightly better immune functioning. This confirms the results of an earlier American study which found that cats were more effective than dogs in reducing rates of asthma.

Other studies have shown that these health benefits are not limited to children. A groundbreaking Australian study found that adults who own pets had lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels. These results were confirmed by American researchers who found that the positive effect of pet ownership on blood pressure were long-lasting. Access to pets can also reduce the severity of depression among hospital patients and help ease the misery of bereavement.

1. The term 'Four-legged Pharmaceutical' in the title refers to

A. pets that cause illness 

B. pets that improve health 

C. pets that need medicine

D. pets that give medicine

2. Asthma is probably

A. a health disorder 

B. a sign of good health 

C. linked to higher rates of school attendance

D. linked to growing up with pets at home

3. A 'risk-free' relationship is one that

A. pet owners offer their pets 

B. you have to work hard to achieve 

C. is not related to success or position

D. is linked to status but not success

4. You are less likely to suffer from asthma if

A. you have contact with dogs 

B. you have contact with cats 

C. you stay away from dogs

D. you stay away from cats

5. Adult pet owners

A. do not experience benefits 

B. experienced only limited benefits 

C. experienced the same benefits as children

D. also benefited from pet ownership

 

Đáp án:

1 B

2 A

3 C

4 B

5 D

 

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