Sách Từ vựng IELTS – Unit 37: Words for talking about ideas – Học Hay


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Từ vựng IELTS - Unit 37: Words for talking about ideas

Bài tập từ vựng IELTS Unit 37: Words for talking about ideas - Học Hay

1. Complete each sentence 1—8 with the most appropriate word a—h.

1. The religious _____ of the time prevented these innovative ideas from gaining wider acceptance.

A. concept

B. conjecture

C. consensus

D. dogma

E. framework 

F. ideology 

G. perspective

H. stance

2. The government is reconsidering its _____ on welfare reform and now appears to more or less in agreement with the main opposition party.

A. concept

B. conjecture

C. consensus

D. dogma

E. framework 

F. ideology 

G. perspective

H. stance

3. The development of international law is interesting when viewed from a historical _____.

A. concept

B. conjecture

C. consensus

D. dogma

E. framework 

F. ideology 

G. perspective

H. stance

4. We dismissed his accusation of theft because it was based on _____ rather than fact.

A. concept

B. conjecture

C. consensus

D. dogma

E. framework 

F. ideology 

G. perspective

H. stance

5. The prime minister was criticized for basing his approach to economic problems on political _____ rather than on a reasonable assessment of the situation.

A. concept

B. conjecture

C. consensus

D. dogma

E. framework 

F. ideology 

G. perspective

H. stance

6. Despite intense negotiation, the committee was unable to reach a _____.

A. concept

B. conjecture

C. consensus

D. dogma

E. framework 

F. ideology 

G. perspective

H. stance

7. The time-space continuum is a difficult _____ to grasp unless you are a physicist.

A. concept

B. conjecture

C. consensus

D. dogma

E. framework 

F. ideology 

G. perspective

H. stance

8. Hofstede developed an interesting _____ for comparing cultures.

A. concept

B. conjecture

C. consensus

D. dogma

E. framework 

F. ideology 

G. perspective

H. stance

 

2. Underline the adjectives that have a positive meaning. Circle those which have a negative meaning.

1. ambiguous 

2. biased 

3. compelling 

4. credible 

5. flawed

6. valid

 

3. Match the beginning of each sentence 1—4 with the most appropriate ending a-d.

1. The former dictator was convicted of war crimes...

A. ...because it failed to consider the objections of local residents.

B. ...as no one was able to offer a credible alternative.

C. ...unless he can put forward a valid argument.

D. ...as the evidence against him was compelling.

2. He is unlikely to win the debate...  

A. ...because it failed to consider the objections of local residents.

B. ...as no one was able to offer a credible alternative.

C. ...unless he can put forward a valid argument.

D. ...as the evidence against him was compelling.

3. I thought the planning committee's stance was biased in favour of property developers...

A. ...because it failed to consider the objections of local residents.

B. ...as no one was able to offer a credible alternative.

C. ...unless he can put forward a valid argument.

D. ...as the evidence against him was compelling.

4. The negotiators decided to stick with the original framework for peace...

A. ...because it failed to consider the objections of local residents.

B. ...as no one was able to offer a credible alternative.

C. ...unless he can put forward a valid argument.

D. ...as the evidence against him was compelling.

 

4. Complete the table below with the missing parts of speech.

noun      concept    dogma  
adjective  ambiguous  biased   credible    valid

 

 

5. Complete the summary with words from the text underneath. Use each word once only.

Many educators have tried to devise a [1] _____ for understanding the reading process. Some maintain that readers use a bottom-up approach. Others have questioned the [2] _____ of this view, arguing instead that readers use a 'top-down' strategy based on their understanding of the reading passage context. However, this [3] _____ also has [4] _____.

The reading process

Educators have made numerous attempts to develop a framework for making sense of what goes on in the mind of the reader in the process of reading a text. Some believe that readers build up an understanding of a text from the 'bottom-up': that is, they decode individual words first, then sentences, then paragraphs and so on. Critics have cast doubt on the validity of this model by pointing out, for example, that readers can often understand texts which have words missing.

Those who adopt an alternative stance maintain that readers employ a 'top-down’ approach to reading. They believe that readers use their understanding of the overall context of the reading passage to Work out the meaning of individual words, phrases and sentences. However, flaws have also been identified in this perspective. It is obvious, for example, that it would be impossible for readers to read a text written in a language completely unknown to them, however much they knew about the context.

 

Đáp án:

1.

1 d

2 h

3 g

4 b

5 f

6 c

7a

8 e

 

2.

Underline: 3, 4, 6

Circle: 1, 2, 5

 

3.

1 d

2 c

3 a

4 b

 

4.

noun ambiguity bias concept credibility dogma validity
adjective ambiguous biased conceptual credible dogmatic valid

 

5.

1 framework

2 validity

3 perspective

4 flaws

Exam practise Unit 37: Words for talking about ideas

Exam practice: Reading — completing a summary — matching sentence endings

QUESTIONS 1—6

Complete the summary below with words from the reading passage underneath. Use NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.

Summary

For many years, [1] _____ have tried to define the concept of humour but failed to reach a [2] _____. Although numerous [3] _____ of humour have been identified, three main categories are commonly recognized: superiority, [4] _____. Proponents of the superiority model believe that people see humour in the [5] _____ of others. However, this interpretation is not always [6] _____.

What is humour?

We all recognize it when we see it, but do we really know what it is? For over 2500 years. philosophers and psychologists have tried to answer this question; however, there has been little consensus to date over what, in essence, constitutes humour. Indeed, some scholars have identified as many as 100 distinct theories of humour in the literature on the subject.

The standard analysis classifies theories of humour into three broad categories: superiority, relief and incongruity. The superiority theory can be traced back to the ancient Greek philosophers Aristotle and Plato, who maintained that we laugh at the misfortune or inferiority of others: the ugly, the ill-educated, and the uncouth. According to this framework, our sense of superiority brings about a feeling of joy or pleasure. Whilst this may explain some instances of humour, it is clearly not valid in every case: we can often feel superior to something, an insect for example, without finding the situation funny.

Relief theorists, on the other hand, propose a 'tension—release' model to the problem of humour. Proponents of this approach see laughter as a release of nervous or pent—up energy. The psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud, for example, noted that jokes often touch on taboo subjects such as infidelity or death. He believed that laughter is a release of psychic energy that would normally be used to suppress awareness of uncomfortable subjects. However, this theory too has its flaws. Some critics have pointed out that the failure to distinguish between laughter [a physical response] and humour [a concept relating to thought or feeling] has resulted in unhelpful ambiguity.

This brings us to the third category: incongruity theories of humour. According to this framework, humour occurs when there is a sudden resolution of a mismatch between expectation and reality. Puns, jokes which play on the double meaning of words, are a good illustration of this view. For example, 'I needed a password eight characters long so I picked Snow White and the Seven Dwarves' plays on the dual meaning of the word 'character'. In the first part of the sentence the listener develops the expectation that 'characters' refers to letters of the alphabet. The humorous twist occurs when the teller reveals that he has in fact chosen as his password characters [fictional people] from a well—known animated film. While incongruity theories of humour are generally seen as having the greatest credibility, they too have their critics. Experience tells us that some incongruities — finding a shoe in your refrigerator, for example — may simply be experienced as perplexing or uncomfortable.

What can one conclude from this? Perhaps only that whilst each of these approaches can explain some instances of humour, no single one has captured every aspect of this most elusive quality.

 

Đáp án:

1 philosophers and psychologists (any order)

2 consensus

3 theories

4 relief and incongruity (any order)

5 misfortune or inferiority (any order)

6 valid

 

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