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Từ vựng IELTS - Unit 6: Effective Communication
Từ vựng IELTS theo chủ đề - Language
1.1 Which of the following aspects of English do you find the most difficult?
Listen to somebody talking about learning a language and say which THREE things in 1.1 she had difficulty with.
A (at the beginning), F, G
Listen again and find words that match these definitions.
1 change words from one language to another................
2 the ability to do something without making mistakes ……....
3 something that prevents successful communication................
4 a person who has spoken the language from birth................
5 the ability to speak without hesitation................
6 work or carry out daily tasks................
3. language barrier
4. native speaker.
Use a dictionary to check the meaning of the phrases in the box. Then complete sentences 1-8 with the correct phrase.
There is something to be said for When all is said and done Needless to say
You can say that again! having said that That is to say have a say to say the least
1 Bill: Hello, Sam, what a surprise meeting you here!
Sam: ............... !
2 Nuclear power has its problems. However,..............., many people believe it is the energy source of the future.
3 .................... switching to solar energy, although it is still too expensive for many people.
4 Life without a constant supply of water can be difficult,............... .
5 ………………………, there is little we can do to save the environment without the full support of industry and the government.
6 The tanker spilled 5,000 megalitres of oil into the ocean..............., this had a devastating effect on marine life in the area.
7 There is a clear link between humans and environmental problems..............., wherever humans live, they damage the environment in some way.
8 I think it's important for everyone to............... in how the government is elected.
1. You can say that again! (= I totally agree with you)
2. having said that ( = despite this)
3. There is something to be said for ( = lt has some advantages)
4. to say the least(= it is in fact even more important than I have just said)
5. When all is said and done (= After everything else; remember this)
6. Needless to say (= This is to be totally expected)
7. That is to say ( = In other words)
8. have a say (= be involved in making a decision)
2.2 Correct the mistakes in these sentences.
1 The chart talks us how many students were studying in the college in 1990.
2 I can't understand what he is speaking. He's almost incoherent. .
3 Today I'm going to tell about my last holiday in America................
4 I can talk three languages fluently, but Italian is my mother tongue................
5 I learned English from a textbook, so I don't really understand it when it is said................
6 The table says the percentage of people moving into urban areas between 1960 and 1990................
1. talks shows/ tells
2. speaking saying
3. tell about talk about/ tell you about
4. talk speak
5. said spoken
6. says shows
2.3 The words in column B should be similar in meaning to those in column A. Cross out the odd word in each group.
close summarise recap recall
clarify define express illustrate
indicate intend signify stutter
conjecture connotation significance sense
demonstrate express speak verbalise
imply intimate propose state
gesture narrate recount relate
appreciate comprehend contradict follow
1. recall (= remember)
2 express(- say)
3. stutter (= speak with difficulty, pausing at the start of a word or repeating the beginning)
4. conjecture (= a guess not based on any proof)
5. demonstrate (= show how something works)
6. state (= say)
7. gesture (- using your hands to help you communicate on idea)
8. contradict (= state the opposite)
Từ vựng IELTS theo chủ đề - Linguistics
3.1 Read the text and then answer the questions.
Signs of success
Deaf people are making a profound contribution to the study of language
Just as biologists rarely see a new species arise, linguists rarely get to discover an unknown dialect or even better, to see a new language being born. But the past few decades have seen an exception. Academics have been able to follow the formation of a new language in Nicaragua. The catch is that it is not a spoken language but, rather, a sign language which arose spontaneously in deaf children.
The thing that makes language different from other means of communication is that it is made of units that can be combined in different ways to create different meanings. In a spoken language these units are words; in a sign language these units are gestures. Ann Senghas, of Columbia University, in New York, is one of the linguists who have been studying the way these have gradually evolved in Nicaraguan Sign Language (NSL}.
The language emerged in the late 1970s, at a new school for deaf children. Initially, the children were instructed by teachers who could hear. No one taught them how to sign; they simply worked it out for themselves. By conducting experiments on people who attended the school at various points in its history, Dr Senghas has shown how NSL has become more sophisticated over time. For example, concepts that an older signer uses a single sign for, such as rolling and falling, have been unpacked into separate signs by youngsters. Early users, too, did not develop a way of distinguishing left from right. Dr Senghas showed this by asking signers of different ages to converse about a set of photographs that each could see. One signer had to pick a photograph and describe it. The other had to guess which photograph he was referring to.
When all the photographs contained the same elements, merely arranged differently, older people, who had learned the early form of the language, could neither signal which photo they meant. nor understand the signals of their younger partners. Nor could their younger partners teach them the signs that indicate left and right. The older people clearly understood the concept of left and right, they just could not express it. What intrigues the linguists is that, for a sign language to emerge spontaneously, deaf children must have some inherent tendency to link gestures to meaning.
3.2 Say whether the following statements are true or false. Give an explanation for each answer using words from the text. Then use your dictionary to check the meaning of any words in bold that you do not know.
1 Ann Senghas studies languages .
2 Teachers taught the Nicaraguan deaf children how to use sign language.
3 The earliest form of the sign language was very basic.
4 The older signers were able to show the difference between left and right.
5 linguists believe that deaf children are born with the ability to link gestures to meaning.
1. True – she’s a linguist
2. False - it was spontaneous.
3. True - it became more sophisticated.
4. False (they did not develop a way of distinguishing left from right)
5. True (must have some inherent tendency to link gestures to meaning)
4.1 Think about your answers to these questions.
1 What do you need to do to be a good language learner?
2 What do you think makes a good language teacher?
3 What problems do people experience when they learn your language?
Look at these answers to the questions in 4.1 and complete them with a suitable word from this unit. Listen to the recording to check your answers.
1 Well, you need to be able to put down your textbooks from time to time and forget about (1)............... That's the only way to become more (2)...............in a language. You also need to (3)………….to (4)............... speakers of the language as much as you can.
2 I think the best language teachers are those who can (5)...............another language themselves. They also need to be able to (6)...............things clearly and in a way that is easy to (7)................
3 My (8)...............language is very difficult to learn because of the (9)............... The individual sounds are very strange to other nationalities and difficult for them to (10)................
Other possible answers are in italics.
3. speak/ talk
7. follow / understand / comprehend
8. first/ native
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