Sách Từ vựng IELTS – Unit 9: The nature world – Học Hay


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Từ vựng IELTS - Unit 9: The Natural World

Flora and fauna

1.1   How many plants and animals do you know? Can you name:

A  five animals found in Africa?

B  five different types of flower?

C  five types of fruit?

D  five animals found in Australia?

E   five different types of tree?

F   five types of vegetable?

 

Đáp án:

A.   elephant, giraffe, lion, hippopotamus, ostrich, rhinoceros

B.   carnation, daisy, lily, rose tulip

C.   apple, banana, grape, grapefruit, mango, melon, orange, pear, pineapple

D.   emu, echidna, dingo, kangaroo, koala, platypus

E.   gum, maple, oak, pine, palm

F.    aubergine or eggplant, broccoli, courgette or zucchini, carrot. cauliflower, pea, pumpkin, potato

 

1.2  Are these words associated with plants or animals? Put the words into the correct column. Which word can go in both columns?

flora     trunk    fauna    fur      vegetation       hide      scales      branch     twig     feathers     paw    root     coat     predator     claw      thorn    petal    beak      horn

 

Animals

Plants

 

 

 

Which five words in the animal column are connected to their skin or covering?

 

Đáp án:

Animals

Plants

coat, claw, beak, fauna, fur, feathers, hide, horn, paw, predator, scales, trunk

branch, flora, petal, root, thorn, twig, trunk, vegetation

A trunk can be part of a tree or on an elephant. Coat, feathers, fur, hide and scales are all associated with the skin or covering of animals.

 

1.3   COMPOUND NOUNS

Complete the sentences by adding one of these words animal, human, nature, natural.

1   It's human .......... to want to find a solution to our problems.

2   Vegans do not use or eat any.............. products.

3   I would rather be served by a..............being than by a computer.

4   I am constantly amazed by how beautiful and how destructive mother..............can be.

5    Man is said to be the most dangerous creature of all the.............. kingdom.

6     Animals are much happier living in their.............. habitat.

7    Manmade disasters such as chemical spills can destroy the.............. balance.

8    In some countries prisoners are denied basic.............. rights.

 

Đáp án:

1. nature

2. animal

3. human

4. nature

5. animal

6. natural

7. natural

8. human

 

1.4    Listen to a description of an animal called a meerkat and complete the table.

Habitat

Diet

• Found in South Africa in (1).............. areas.

• Avoids woodland and thick (2)..............

• It sleeps in (3)..............

• If necessary, the meerkat will make a (4).............. between rocks.      

• Meerkats mostly eat

(5)..............,

(6).............. and

(7)............... 

• They occasionally eat small rodents and the (8)..............of certain plants.

 

Đáp án:

1. semi-arid

2. vegetation

3. burrows/dens

4. den

5,6,7. insects/spiders/snails (in any order)

8. roots

Agriculture

2.1   Which is the odd one out? Circle the word which is different from the others and say why.

1    rose tulip daisy week………………….  

2    plant grow cultivate soil..............

3   crop plant shrub bush..............

4   organic natural chemical biological..............

5   tropical subtropical humid arid..............   

6   arid desert semi-arid tropical..............  

7   endemic native introduced local..............  

 

Đáp án:

1.  weed (We want to grow the others)

2.   soil (the others are verbs)

3.  crop  (the others are single plants)

4.  chemical (the others mean without chemicals)

5.   arid (the others are all wet climates)

6.  tropical (the others are all dry climates)

7.  introduced (the others all refer to things that naturally belong to an area)

 

2.2   Read the text and then decide if the statements below are true or false. Find words in the text which mean the same or the opposite of the words in bold.

Introduced species

Since the birth of agriculture, farmers have tried to avoid using pesticides by employing various biological methods to control nature. The first method involved introducing a predator that would control pests by eating them. This was used successfully in 1925 to control the prickly pear population in Australia. The prickly pear had originally been used as a divider between paddocks. However, it eventually spread from a few farms to 4 million hectares of farming land, rendering them unusable. The Cactoblastis mothlarvae was introduced to help control the situation and within ten years, the prickly pear was virtually eradicated. Further attempts at biological control weren't so successful. When farmers tried to eliminate the cane beetle by introducing the South American cane toad, the results were catastrophic. The cane toad did not eat the cane beetle and the toad population spread rapidly leading to the decline of native species of mammals and reptiles.

1     Farmers do not like using chemicals to kill pests                       

2   The prickly pear was planted as a type of barrier between fields         

3   The Cactoblastis moth killed off nearly all prickly pear plants                                                

4   The cane toad was a native species to Australia                                                           

5   Using the cane toad was very successful.                                                       

 

Đáp án:

1.  True (pesticides = chemicals to kill pests)

2.  True (paddocks= fields)

3.  True (eradicated= killed off)

4. False (native is the opposite of introduced)

5.  False (very successful is the opposite of catastrophic)

 

2.3  Now read the rest of the text and match the words in italics to the definitions below.

Other introduced species have proved similarly disastrous among native Australian animals. Since the introduction of the cat, the fox and the rabbit from Europe, 19 species of native animals have become extinct and a further 250 species are considered to be either endangered or vulnerable. The modern-day approach to the biological control of pests is through genetically modified crops.

It remains to be seen whether this controversial method will have any long-term repercussions, particularly in regards to the ecological balance of the environment where they are grown. Some fear that insects may become resistant to these new crops and therefore become even more difficult to control.

1     at risk..............         .

2    negative effects..............        .

3   to stop being affected by something

4   at risk of dying out..............         .

s   no longer existing..............         .

6   crops whose genes have been scientifically changed……………….

7    extremely bad or unsuccessful..............         .

8    the relationship between plants, animals, land, air, and water..............         .

 

Đáp án:

1. vulnerable

2. repercussions

3. become resistant

4. endangered

5. extinct

6. genetically modified

7. disastrous

8. ecological balance

 

2.4 WORD BUILDING

Complete the table. You do not need to write anything in the shaded areas.

 Noun

Adjective

Adverb

Verb

agriculture

agricultural

 

 

ecology

 

 

 

 

 

 

evolve

 

extinct

 

…………….extinct

nature

 

 

 

 

genetic

 

 

 

 

Đáp án:

 Noun

Adjective

Adverb

Verb

agriculture

agricultural

agriculturally

x

ecology

ecological

ecologically

x

evolution

evolutionary

x

evolve

extinction

extinct

x

become extinct

nature

natural

naturally

x

genetics/genes

genetic

genetically

x

 

3. Improve the text by replacing the words in italics with a suitable word or phrase from this unit.

Some farmers believe that growing 1 fruit and vegetables that have been 2 changed so that their genes ore different is a good way to 3 totally stop pests and improve the quality of their produce. However, this type of 4 farming has both advantages and disadvantages.

One of the advantages is that farmers can grow plants that produce a poison that is harmful to 5 small animals like flies and caterpillars. This means that farmers will not have to use 6 chemicals to kill these animals and so this should be better for the surrounding environment and the 7 earth that plants grow in. As a result, it could help to protect other 8 plants as well as the 9 living space of any animals in the area.

On the other hand, farmers usually only spray their fields once or twice per year but these new plants would be toxic all year round. Furthermore, it is possible that over time the pests may 10 stop being killed by the toxins and so the problem would be worse than ever. The toxins may also be poisonous to other plants and animals and this would upset the 11 way plants and animals live and grow together and may lead to more animals becoming 12 at risk of extinction.

 

Đáp án:

1. crops

2. genetically modified

3. eradicate

4. agriculture

5. insects

6. pesticides

7. soil

8. vegetation

9. habitat

10. become resistant to

11. ecological balance

12. endangered

 

4 PRONUNCIATION

Each of the words in the box below has a weak sound (ə) or schwa, e.g. bout. Underline the schwa in each word, then listen and check your answers. Practise saying the words. There may be more than one schwa in each word.

adapt              agriculture              catastrophe              chemical             climate              disastrous              endangered              genetically              human              natural             vulnerable

 

Đáp án:

adapt              agriculture              catastrophe              chemical             climate              disastrous              endangered              genetically              human              natural             vulnerable

 

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Từ vựng IELTS theo chủ đề – Unit 9: The nature world – Học Hay

 

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